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Oceans cover around 70% of the world and with increasing maritime activities, the need for environmental protection and the further study and improvements of land-ocean-human interactions (be it implemented on or off-shore) is of importance for ESA.

Maritime and aquatic refers to human interaction with, and activity at, sea. This is a broad domain that includes on one hand activities at land such as shipbuilding, ports for goods and people, and fishing port operations. It likewise includes activities related to the transportation of people and goods, aid to navigation and operations at sea as well as a maritime surveillance and safety/emergency response. And importantly it also includes all aspects of marine life and environment, aquatic-life monitoring, aquaculture and fisheries. Off-shore energy and its impact on the maritime ecosystem and the protection of latter is a raising topic.

The further study of the land-ocean-human interactions and more generally, any activity that supports the efficacy of activities (be it implemented on or off-shore), is of importance for ESA.

Maritime services based on the integrated use of space-based systems are deeply embedded in the operations of a wide range of user communities: shipping companies, fisheries, coast guards, port authorities, navies, national and international institutions. Multiple ESA programmes are engaging with national and international end-user organisations to complement and enhance their current capabilities through the application of satellite communications, navigation and earth observation systems and services.

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# Opportunity Closing date
1-10581 Smart and Uncrewed Shipping 15/12/2021

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